Making an ice rink is nowhere near as simple as freezing a pool of water, even though this sometimes works in nature. It can take up to a dozen separate stages depending on what the ice rink is going to be used for and what markings, if any, are going to be applied.
Ice rinks use a similar technology to that of refrigerators except that, instead of directly cooling the ice until it freezes, a calcium chloride solution called brinewater is cooled to the required temperature – usually around -16 degrees Celsius (3.2 degrees Fahrenheit) and then pumped under the concrete floor of the rink.
Beneath the cooling slab are an insulated layer and a heated layer that prevent the ground under the rink from freezing. To form a suitable surface for a professional ice hockey game, for instance, up to 57,000 litres (15,000 gallons) of water are gradually pumped onto the concrete cooling slab and allowed to freeze in a series of smooth layers.