How did the first electric refrigerators work?
Back in the Twenties, one electric refrigeration company dominated the market: Kelvinator. Its wooden cold box/compressor combo cost $714 (nearly $9,800/£6,100 today) – way beyond the pocket of the average household. So, with the goal of bringing more affordable refrigerators to the masses, General Electric ploughed $18 million into making the GE ‘Monitor-top’ fridge.
They were called Monitor-tops because the cabinet was all steel and the condenser was sealed in a cylindrical enclosure on top, which made it look like the turret from a 19th-century ironclad warship – the USS Monitor.
These refrigeration units worked under the same principles as modern fridges. By using a compressor, a circulating refrigerant was transformed from vapour into a liquid and cooled to near-room temperature under pressure, before being released back into circulation. The sudden change in pressure caused the refrigerant to turn into a vapour again, which had to draw heat from the air inside the cabinet, ultimately cooling it.
Several models of the Monitor-top were made, including two and three-door units, but the most popular was the single-door variant, which originally sold for $300 in 1927.