The term inoculation and vaccination are used interchangeably. They involve introducing a foreign substance (antigens) into the body, causing antibody production. These can either be dead, made less harmful, or just contain certain bits that cause disease. White blood cells called B lymphocytes recognise these antigens, and produce antibodies to neutralise them. After the initial encounter, a group of B lymphocytes are made, called ‘memory cells’, which produce antibodies faster if exposed to the same antigen again.
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