NASA’s first manned space programmes involved landing space capsules in the ocean. Astronauts were trained for surviving on the ocean and also had jungle training.
To gain experience of high g-forces experienced from high levels of acceleration, trainee astronauts are spun on the end of a long arm that rotates at high speed.
Astronauts have to be fit and healthy. Fitness programmes in the early days of space exploration were intensive and involved training in oxygen-deprived environments.
Astronauts are given the sensation of working in spacesuits in giant water tanks. NASA uses the worlds largest indoor pool-holding shuttle and station mock-ups.
Astronauts train for their mission in mock-ups and simulators. These give a realistic impression of the tasks that they will carry out and the living conditions.