Discover the highly energised matter that powers life on Earth.
We’re all familiar with solids, liquids and gases, which are three fundamental states of matter. But although it’s not as well known, there’s actually a fourth state that’s more common than all of the others – plasma.
This state occurs when atoms of gas are packed with energy, enough for them to separate into positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons. This makes plasma a great conductor of electricity and allows it to respond to magnetic forces, much unlike gas.
This phenomenon may sound strange, but we actually see these energetic particles every day here on Earth. During a lightning storm, for example, plasma is responsible for the beams of light we see flashing down from the sky. The massive current moving through the air energises atoms and turns them into plasma particles, which bump into each other and release light.
We also see plasma every time we look at the Sun. The high temperatures are constantly converting the Sun’s fuel – hydrogen and helium atoms – into positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons, making our local star the most concentrated body of plasma in the Solar System.
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