Sunburnt man

How does sunburn damage the skin?

Sunburn is caused by an overexposure to either sunlight or artificial UV rays. Sunburn doesn’t occur every time the skin is exposed, indeed low- level exposure often causes tanning, a darkening of the skin caused by an increase in levels of … Continued

Crowded Beach

Heatwaves explained: The causes and effects of hot weather

Although, according to Met Office meteorologist John Hammond, there’s no official definition of a heatwave, these hot-weather phenomena take their toll not only on a population’s health, but also business and infrastructure – such as power, water and transport. A heatwave … Continued


Why is chocolate bad for animals?

Nearly all humans love chocolate, it gives us immense pleasure when we devour it and contains nothing that is directly harmful too us, unless you include the fat and sugar that can be detrimental to our overall health. However, it’s … Continued

How to tell a dinosaurs age?

Dating fossils: How do you tell a dinosaur’s age?

No, this isn’t the set up for a prehistoric joke, finding the age of dinosaur fossils is actually an incredibly difficult task. Although the dinosaurs roamed the earth for 165 billion years, no single species lasted for this long. Therefore, to work out exactly … Continued

What happens when muscles cramp

What causes muscle cramp?

Muscle cramp can be very painful, typically occurring in your legs or arms. If you’ve ever been for a really long jog, or pushed yourself a bit too hard in the gym, then you have probably felt this uncomfortable muscle spasm, but thankfully … Continued

Diagram of tooth anatomy

What are root canals?

Although they seem pretty solid, our teeth are hollow inside – all the way to the roots. The core is filled with nerves, blood vessels and a connective tissue called dental pulp. In the actual tooth, this space is known as the … Continued

Adams apple Thyroid gland throat

Do women have an Adam’s apple?

The may only be visible on men, but the truth is that women do actually have Adam’s apples too! Watch the video below to find out what an Adam’s apple is and why they can’t be seen on women, plus discover where … Continued

Italian Gelato

Why do ice crystals form when melted ice cream is refrozen?

Ice cream is usually made from milk (which contains water, lipids, proteins and lactose), flavourings and sugar. Separate ice crystals are always present in ice cream, however they are so small and numerous that our tongues can’t detect them. Ice cream gets its smooth texture in … Continued

Cat at night

How do cats see at night?

Cats often hunt at night, and consequently they need superior night-time vision to primarily diurnal creatures. The way their eyes have adapted is by the introduction of an extra layer behind the retina, called the tapetum lucidum, which reflects light back through … Continued

Home science experiment distribution of forces

Home science experiments: Super-strength eggs

As part of our home science experiment series, we are showing you how to gets hands on with science to make learning more fun. The video below explains how you can demonstrate the incredible strength of egg shells to amaze your friends. All you’ll … Continued


Home science experiments: How to make invisible ink

As part of our home science experiment series, we are showing you how to gets hands on with science to make learning more fun. The video below explains how you can make your own invisible ink for sending secret messages that only a … Continued

human lungs

Top 5 Facts: Respiration

The primary organs used for respiration in humans are the lungs. Humans have two lungs, with the left lung being divided into two lobes and the right into three. The lungs have between 300–500 million alveoli, which is where gas exchange … Continued

Woman with flu

Top 5 Facts: The immune system

It’s true: while you’re sitting around watching TV, trillions of foreign invaders are launching a full scale assault on the trillions of cells that constitute ‘you’. Collectively known as pathogens, these attackers include bacteria, single- celled creatures that live to eat … Continued


At what temperature is water at its densest?

Density is a measure of how much mass a material has in a specific volume of space. Therefore the more atoms per unit volume a material has and the more mass those atoms have, the higher the density will be. … Continued

Cracking knuckles

Why do our knuckles crack?

Ever wondered what causes that loud popping noise when you crack your knuckles or stretch your joints? Watch our video to find the answer… By pulling on a knuckle, you gradually increase the space between the bones. As there is … Continued


How do the holes get in Swiss cheese?

To make cheese you need the help of bacteria. Different types of bacteria in different combinations give rise to the distinct variety of flavours in many cheeses. There are various different types of bacteria used for making Swiss cheese, the … Continued


How do lenses magnify or minimise things?

A lens is a transparent piece of glass or plastic with at least one curved surface. Light moves faster in air than it does through glass or plastic. So, when a beam hits a lens, it slows down. When a … Continued

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